Flora and Fauna

Overview

Biodiversity of a certain locality is the one of the indicators of the better sound environment. If the environment is it generally has rich biodiversity. With the human encroachments and increase in pollution the biological species will lose their habitat, food and reproducing environment. Hence their number will decline from that area. They might move to new place or may get extinct as well. Hence study of Flora and Fauna is important. They are not only the source of recreation but also are the important component of ecosystem. The study of flora and fauna help us to make strategies regarding their conservation and the policy makers can come up with proper strategies to prevent them from being extinct.

Current Condition or Trend

Most part of Rupandehi lies in terai region. In Siddharthanagar municipality we don’t have any place where flora and fauna are preserved in-situ or ex-situ. Hence there is high chance that the flora and fauna that already exist might be endangered or migrate some other place for food, shelter or mates. The preliminary study of flora and fauna done by PNMF in citizen science project show that Danda River has rich aquatic biodiversity. There are many types of fishes and aquatic insects inhibiting within it. The insects include lady birds, butterflies, ants etc. At the same time this river is also habitat for some of the migratory birds as well. Depending on the season some of the birds come to this river for shelter, food and mate. Aquatic plants like spirogyra, water hyacinth etc., grow in this river. Some plants that are found along its coast are bamboo, cogon grass, Bermuda grass, Santa Maria etc.

How Does DANDA Address This?

Danda ecological monitoring Program is also focused on conservation of biodiversity in danda riparian zone. We are conducting citizen science project to enumerate the flora and fauna of this region which can be blended with establishment of bio-park. The data obtained from these studies will be helpful for local government or provincial government to make preservation strategies of flora and fauna of this region and to maintain the sound environment in this region.

Overview

Particle pollution is a mixture of solids and liquid droplets suspended in air. Fine particle pollution, or PM2.5, describes particulate matter that is 2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller. (For reference, the diameter of a human hair is 70 micrometers in diameter, or 28 times greater in diameter than fine particle matter.) Very small particles can get deep into the lungs and even cross over into the blood stream, causing heart problems. Health Studies have shown a significant association between exposure to fine particle pollution and serious health issues. Fine particles can aggravate heart and lung diseases and have been linked to effects such as cardiac arrhythmias, heart attacks, asthma attacks, and bronchitis which is why this air pollutant is closely monitored. There are many sources of fine particles, and their chemical composition depends on location, time of year and weather. Particle pollution is a result of burning various fuels, including wood. It also forms in the air when hot gasses cool and condense into solid matter or when certain chemical reactions take place and form small particles.

Current Condition or Trend

Fine particle pollution levels have decreased on a statewide basis since the early 1990s. Currently, 100% of the state is meeting both the 2006 24-hour and the 2012 annual fine particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

Current Condition or Trend

Fine particle pollution standards are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 2006 the 24-hour standard was lowered to better protect human health and in 2012 the annual standard was lowered. Because New Hampshire experiences days where concentrations of 24-hour fine particle levels are considered unhealthy for sensitive groups, the 24-hour standard is provided as the indicator for fine particle pollution levels. Fine particle levels have decreased on a statewide basis since the early 1990s when an amendment to the Clean Air Act required state, regional and federal planning to improve air quality. Because New Hampshire is considered a downwind state, much of the gains in improved air quality have come as the result of regional and national coordination, in combination with our own pollution reduction programs.

How Does DANDA Address This?

Fine particle pollution standards are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 2006 the 24-hour standard was lowered to better protect human health and in 2012 the annual standard was lowered. Because New Hampshire experiences days where concentrations of 24-hour fine particle levels are considered unhealthy for sensitive groups, the 24-hour standard is provided as the indicator for fine particle pollution levels. Fine particle levels have decreased on a statewide basis since the early 1990s when an amendment to the Clean Air Act required state, regional and federal planning to improve air quality. Because New Hampshire is considered a downwind state, much of the gains in improved air quality have come as the result of regional and national coordination, in combination with our own pollution reduction programs.

Overview

Danda riparian zone is rich in biodiversity. This river has provided shelter to many flora and fauna. PNMF has recently conducted a preliminary survey with the help of eco- club members to identify flora and fauna within and along the periphery of Danda River. It is found that this river has rich aquatic biodiversity. There are many types of fishes and aquatic insects inhibiting within it. The insects include lady birds, butterflies, ants etc. At the same time this river is also habitat for some of the migratory birds as well. Depending on the season some of the birds come to this river for shelter, food and mate. Aquatic plants like spirogyra, water hyacinth etc., grow in this river. Some plants that are found along its coast are bamboo, cogon grass, Bermuda grass, santa maria etc. Preservation of this rich biodiversity important to conserve the ecosystem of this region.

 

Current Condition or Trend

Fine particle pollution levels have decreased on a statewide basis since the early 1990s. Currently, 100% of the state is meeting both the 2006 24-hour and the 2012 annual fine particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

 

Current Condition or Trend

Fine particle pollution standards are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 2006 the 24-hour standard was lowered to better protect human health and in 2012 the annual standard was lowered. Because New Hampshire experiences days where concentrations of 24-hour fine particle levels are considered unhealthy for sensitive groups, the 24-hour standard is provided as the indicator for fine particle pollution levels. Fine particle levels have decreased on a statewide basis since the early 1990s when an amendment to the Clean Air Act required state, regional and federal planning to improve air quality. Because New Hampshire is considered a downwind state, much of the gains in improved air quality have come as the result of regional and national coordination, in combination with our own pollution reduction programs.

 

How Does DANDA Address This?

Fine particle pollution standards are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 2006 the 24-hour standard was lowered to better protect human health and in 2012 the annual standard was lowered. Because New Hampshire experiences days where concentrations of 24-hour fine particle levels are considered unhealthy for sensitive groups, the 24-hour standard is provided as the indicator for fine particle pollution levels. Fine particle levels have decreased on a statewide basis since the early 1990s when an amendment to the Clean Air Act required state, regional and federal planning to improve air quality. Because New Hampshire is considered a downwind state, much of the gains in improved air quality have come as the result of regional and national coordination, in combination with our own pollution reduction programs.